Friday, May 30, 2014

Hoy en Vivo: entrevista de radio

Cristóbal Fundora Sittón

José Francisco Araoz
Egresados del Centro Perry, Cristobal Fundora Sittón, Cónsul General  de Panamá en La Coruña, España y José Francisco Araoz, Analista internacional especialista en defensa y seguridad, Profesor titular de Logística de la defensa de la Universidad de Lanús, Argentina se entrevistan hoy viernes 30 de Mayo, a las 5:00 PM (hora de Washington, DC) en el programa "Clase Ejecutiva" en el Radio Palermo FM 94.7 de Argentina.

Para escuchar en vivo por Internet:

Thursday, May 22, 2014

Throwback Thursday

Participants at the Perry Center's Washington Security and Defense Seminar in Washington D.C. in September 2013 with former Director Richard Downie.

Participantes del seminario de seguridad y defensa del Centro Perry en septiembre 2013 con el antiguo Director Richard Downie. 

The Washington Security and Defense Seminar allows participants to develop their knowledge and improve their analytical skills about the security and defense environment and the policymaking processes of Washington. During a one-week program, participants identify issues and comprehend the main perspectives on national objectives, preferences on strategies, policy guidelines, and the dynamics of decision-making in a democratic society.

El Seminario para Diplomáticos en Washington permite a los participantes desarrollar su conocimiento y mejorar sus capacidades analíticas sobre el ambiente de seguridad y defensa y de formulación de políticas de Washington. Durante un programa de una semana de duración los participantes identifican los temas y entienden las perspectivas principales de los objetivos nacionales, preferencias en cuanto a estrategias, guías de políticas, y la dinámica de la toma de decisiones en una sociedad democrática.

Monday, May 19, 2014

Organized Crime in Latin America: Trend Overview

The William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies
Organized Crime in Latin America: Trend Overview
By Jenny Lafaurie
Photo credit:
The complexity and multidimensionality of organized crime as a challenge to public security in Latin America can be exemplified by the many forms it takes – e.g. human trafficking networks, prison gangs, terrorist groups, transnational criminal syndicates- and its ability to mold and adapt to an ever-changing reality on the ground – e.g. increased pressure from security forces, growth in drug consumption-. However, an important question arises: what are the trends behind the well-oiled, interconnected machinery of transnational crime in the Americas? While conducting extensive research on the subject for Dr. Evan Ellis, I stumbled upon a very interesting paper written by Bruce Bagley entitled “Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in the Americas: Major Trends in the Twenty-First Century”. Let us take a closer look at some of these trends.
The first trend identified by Bagley is the Increasing Globalization of Drug Consumption. The latest data available by the World Drug Report 2013 provides us with very telling evidence about the significant transformation of drug use around the world: although the consumption of“traditional” drugs such as heroin and cocaine has stabilized, the latest trends have seen a significant increase in the use on new psychoactive substances (NPS) - such as synthetic cannabinoids, ketamine, and plant-based substances- at the global level. [1] The main challenge with NPS´s is that manufacturers constantly modify such drugs in order to escape existing legal frameworks that ban many of the variants of these substances which, according to the report, number approximately 251 different kinds. [2] Furthermore, NPS can be “mass produced in clandestine locations regardless of climate or other factors that limit traditional drug production.” [3] In the case of Latin America, NPS are becoming increasingly popular, with synthetic drugs such as 2C-B and ketamine already identified as being available in countries such as Peru, Colombia, and Argentina. However, cocaine, marihuana, and heroine are still the most consumed drugs in the region.
The second trend,the limited victories and unintended consequences of the U.S. led War on Drugs, especially in the Andes, is very telling. The United States has spent 1 trillion dollars in the War on Drugs ever since its inception by President Richard Nixon in 1971. More than forty years later, however, the War on Drugs is far from achieving its goals. According to an independent study published by the International Center Centre for Science and Drug Policy in 2013, the War on Drugs failure is evidenced by the following crucial facts: the world supply of illegal drugs has grown –in spite of increasing major law enforcement and interdiction efforts-; not only have cannabis, cocaine, and heroin become cheaper in the last two decades, but they have also become more potent and pure; and worldwide consumption of opiates, cocaine and marijuana increased in the 1998-2008 period –and the consumption figures, according to the 2013 World Drug Report, have remained stable.[4]
The unintended consequences of the War on Drugs serve yet as another important piece of evidence that reflects its failure. In the particular case of the Andes, the limited victories achieved in Bolivia and Peru in the late 1980´s and early 1990´s with US- backed crop eradication and air interdiction programs only managed to push crop production to Colombia, making it the world´s top producer of cocaine –Peru was recently declared the biggest producer-.[5]The lucrative illegal drug trade has been the main source of funding for guerrilla groups, and paramilitary and criminal bands (BACRIM), making it the moving force behind drug-related violence in the country, where thousands have died and millions of others are internally displaced. The launch of Plan Colombia in 2000 has, without a doubt, changed the security landscape in Colombia. However, great challenges still remain, including the balloon effects created from gains derived from interdiction and major drug seizures, mainly the shifting of drug production back to Peru and Bolivia.
The Proliferation of areas of drug cultivation and of drug smuggling routes throughout the hemisphere: The Balloon Effect is yet another important trend identified by Bagley. As previously mentioned one of the unintended and most challenging consequences of the efforts to disrupt illicit drug production and trafficking in one place causes criminals to shift towards new areas of cultivation and devise new smuggling routes in places where control and surveillance by authorities is weak. Such is the case with the balloon effect taking place in Peru, where drug production and trafficking in the Apurimac and Ene River Valley Region (VRAE), the country´s primary area of coca cultivation, has significantly increased during the last couple of years. Traffickers have devised new smuggling routes through Bolivia, Brazil (especially through Manaus, the capital of Amazonas state), and Ecuador where they make their way to Argentina (a growing market of illicit drugs), Africa, Europe, the United States, Australia, and Asia.[6]
Bagley also identifies thedispersion and fragmentation of organized criminal groups or networks within countries and across sub-regions (“Cockroach Effects”). A very telling example of this trend is the reality that is taking place in the VRAE region in Peru, where there are approximately 16 narcotrafficking clans operating, each one producing between 300 and 500 kilos of drugs every one to two months using the Shining Path for protection in the transit of drugs they produce (mainly cocaine).[7] A similar situation is unfolding in the Huallaga Valley, where 16 drug clans operate, making each a profit of approximately $6 million dollars a year.[8]The Pichis Palcazú Valley, on the other hand, has become the focal point for cocaine flights where light aircraft that export the cocaine produced in VRAE and Huallaga to Brazil and Bolivia. Currently, there are between 15 to 20 active runways –out of 40-.[9]Efforts by the Peruvian Police to blow up the clandestine runways have failed, as traffickers are quick to rebuild them and are shifting their cocaine air bridge to the VRAE region itself (another example of the balloon effect).[10]
The last trend is the failure of political reform and state-building efforts (Deinstitutionalization Effects). Corruption is perhaps one of the biggest obstacles to political reform and state-building efforts in Latin America. Many examples abound, including the deeply entrenched link between corruption and organized crime in Mexico. State and local corruption run deep across the country. For example, many officials across Mexico have been found to have close links to organized crime. Daily threats from gangs and cartels force officials to submit to these organizations’preferences influencing decisions such as who is hired as police chief and which companies are awarded contracts.[11] Having a strong anti-corruption legal framework – such as the Código Penal General and the National Agreement for Transparency- has not been a sufficient condition for deep structural changes that are able to take place from the very roots of the complex factors that make Mexico one of the most corrupt countries in the region.

The complex dynamics of transnational organized crime in the Americas calls upon a reevaluation of the current strategies governments in the region are employing. It is important to take into account that the realities and weaknesses of each particular state in the Americas (e.g. corruption, lack of confidence in the police force) have been brilliantly used to the advantage of criminal groups, especially given that an ever expanding and profitable drug market across the globe is at stake. Profit is indeed the driving force behind these extensive and interconnected criminal groups. What about legalization? Will it be the solution needed to win the War against Drugs? Should a public health approach take center stage instead of penalization? It will be interesting to see the trends that develop in Uruguay with the legalization of Marihuana use and production. On the other hand, what about corruption? Given the deeply entrenched nature of corruption in national governments, is it realistic to assume that eventually successful political reform will take place? What about citizen security reform? These are all important questions that will deserve further study.

-BAGLEY, Bruce. The evolution of drug trafficking and organized crime in Latin America.Sociologia, Problemas e Práticas, Oeiras, n. 71, Jan. 2013 . Available from

-KNAFO, Saki. Yet Another Study Proves the War on Drugs is Failing. The Huffington Post. October 1st, 2013. Available from: Clanes de la Cocaína. IDL-Reporteros. 2012. Available from:

-MELLA, Romina. Peru´s Cocaine Air Bridge. InsightCrime. November 8, 2013. Available from:

-New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). Available from:
-PARKINSON, Charles. Police Report Shows Evolution in Drug Trafficking. Insight Crime. October 10, 2013. Available from:
-Werb D, Kerr T, Nosyk B, et al. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems. BMJ Open 2013. Pg. 7. Available from:
-World Drug Report 2013. Pg. 114. Available from:

[1] New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). Available from:
[2] World Drug Report 2013. Pg. 114. Available from:
[3] Werb D, Kerr T, Nosyk B, et al. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems. BMJ Open 2013. Pg. 7. Available from:
[4] KNAFO, Saki. Yet Another Study Proves the War on Drugs is Failing. The Huffington Post. October 1st, 2013. Available from:
[5] See, Bagley.
[6] PARKINSON, Charles. Police Report Shows Evolution in Drug Trafficking. Insight Crime. October 10, 2013. Available from:
[7] Los Clanes de la Cocaína. IDL-Reporteros. 2012. Available from:
[8] Ibid.
[9] MELLA, Romina. Peru´s Cocaine Air Bridge. InsightCrime. November 8, 2013. Available from:
[10] Ibid.
[11] ALTHAUS, Dudley. Death and Corruption: Organized Crime and Local Gvt in Mexico. October 18, 2013. Insight Crime. Available from:

Jenny Lafaurie is currently a senior at Korea University in Seoul, South Korea, where she is pursuing a Bachelor’s Degree in International Studies with a concentration on Security Studies and U.S. Foreign Policy. Jenny has been working at The Perry Center since September 2013 conducting extensive research for Dr. Evan Ellis on extra-regional actors in Latin America, especially China, Russia, India, and Iran, and their bilateral relations, military cooperation and economic ventures with countries in the region.


Thursday, May 15, 2014

Throwback Thursday

                                                SDP students at the Perry Center in March 2012.

                                           Estudiantes del curso SDP al Centro Perry en Marzo 2012.

Strategy and Defense Policy (SDP) is one of the foundational courses that the Perry Center offers each year. The purpose of this course is to offer participants the theoretical foundations and analytical tools to help them in developing and/or expanding their ability to become active participants in the processes of security and defense strategy and policy formulation, decision making, implementation, and control and oversight. Using the international and hemispheric security and defense environment as a framework for reference, the course deals with the challenges faced by Latin American countries to provide security and to improve defense administration. Participants will analyze, at the political level, the links and the different perspectives in dealing with security challenges at global, regional and national levels. The curriculum also deals with concepts and theories that will allow for a better understanding of the national decision-making process, international cooperation, and the implementation of directives in response to priorities in the classical and non-traditional use of the armed forces in democratic societies

El curso de Estrategia y Política de Defensa (SDP) es uno de los cursos fundamentales que ofrece el Centro Perry cada año. El objetivo del curso es ofrecer a los participantes fundamentos teóricos e instrumentos analíticos que los ayuden a desarrollar y/o ampliar sus competencias para participar efectivamente tanto en los procesos de formulación de estrategias y políticas de defensa y seguridad, como en los referidos a la toma de decisiones e implementación de las mismas, así como también en los procesos de evaluación y control. Teniendo como marco de referencia el entorno de seguridad internacional y hemisférica el curso enfoca los temas que enfrentan en la actualidad los países latinoamericanos para garantizar la seguridad y mejorar la administración de la defensa, teniendo en cuenta sus variados marcos políticos. Desde el nivel político, los participantes analizarán el alcance y variedad de perspectivas de los retos y problemas de seguridad a nivel global, hemisférico, regional y nacional. El programa curricular dedica también atención a los elementos conceptuales y teóricos que permiten enriquecer la comprensión de procesos de toma de decisiones a nivel nacional y de coordinación internacional, así como la implementación de directivas en respuesta a prioridades en el empleo clásico y no tradicional de las fuerzas armadas en sociedades democráticas. Los elementos teóricos y los instrumentos analíticos son presentados a través de ponencias, paneles, y estudios de caso, y son puestos en práctica mediante la ejecución de un ejercicio pedagógico empleando escenarios ficticios dotados de elementos tomados del entorno de seguridad.
To see more photos of students and alumni at courses and Perry Center events, visit our Flickr page at
Para ver más fotos de los estudiantes y los alumnos de los cursos y eventos del Centro Perry, haga clic en el siguiente enlace:

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Association Spotlight: CHDS William J. Perry -Capítulo Guatemala

On April 23, 2014, the alumni association from Guatemala together with the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Guatemala organized their third conference. This conference was presented by Dr. Kevin Newmeyer and Dr. Michael Gold-Biss, Perry Center professors, on the topics of cybersecurity and governability.

El 23 de abril de 2014  la asociación de egresados de Guatemala junto con el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Gobierno de Guatemala organizaron su tercera conferencia.  Esta conferencia fue presentada por el Dr. Kevin Newmeyer y el Dr. Michael Gold-Biss, profesores del Centro Perry, sobre ciber seguridad y gobernabilidad.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Alumni: Roland Maunday

It is with profound sadness that we announce the passing of Brigadier General Roland Maunday, of Trinidad and Tobago. He participated in our Washington Security and Defense Seminar (WSDS) in 2010. In November 2011, General Maunday became the Chief of Defence for Trinidad and Tobago. He received many awards and medals and was a highly recognized leader.

Monday, May 12, 2014

Episode 2: Voices in Security

This week, in our newest edition of Voices in Security, Perry Center Professor Patricia Escamilla-Hamm discusses transnational criminal organizations and human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere.

Esta semana, en nuestro nuevo capítulo de Voces en Seguridad, la Profesora Patricia Escamilla-Hamm del Centro Perry habla sobre las organizaciones criminales transnacionales y la trata de personas en el hemisferio occidental.

Thursday, May 8, 2014

Throwback Thursday

                             PHSD students with Perry Center Professor Luis Kun in March 2011.

                    Estudiantes del curso PHSD con el Profesor Luis Kun del Centro Perry en Marzo 2011.

To see more photos of students and alumni at courses and Perry Center events, visit our Flickr page at
Para ver más fotos de los estudiantes y los alumnos de los cursos y eventos del Centro Perry, haga clic en el siguiente enlace:

Alumni Spotlight: Ricardo Torres Medrano

Ricardo Torres Medrano (GGSA 2012, SIS 2014) from Argentina published two books, "Public University Education" and " “Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche." Here are the links to read more about the books:
Ricardo Torres Medrano (GGSA 2012, SIS 2014) de Argentina público dos libros, "Educación Pública Universitaria” y “Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.” Aquí están los enlaces para aprender más sobre los libros:

Monday, May 5, 2014

Perry Paper Submission Deadline Extension/Prórroga de Fecha de Entrega

Perry Paper Series No. 1 by Dr. R. Evan Ellis
The Perry Center seeks submissions for the Perry Paper Series contest. The deadline has been extended to June 1, 2014.

Essays may be submitted in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Entries should be between 40 and 80 typed double-spaced pages. Send submissions to by June 1, 2014. See the Publications Handbook (Section 7) for additional contest details, and see our Publications Handbook and Writing Guide for more information about our publishing procedures.
The winner will be notified by July or August. The winning entry will be published by the Perry Center and the winning author’s name placed on a plaque in Perry Center spaces. The winner will be recognized at an award ceremony at the Perry Center. Travel and lodging expenses for the winner for this event will be paid for by the center.

El Centro Perry busca trabajos para el Perry Paper Series. La fecha límite para el envío de propuestas es el 1 de junio de 2014. Consulta nuestra Publications Handbook y Writing Guide para obtener más información.

Los trabajos pueden ser enviados en inglés, español o portugués, con una extensión entre 40 y 80 páginas escritas a doble espacio. Por favor envíe sus trabajos a antes del primero de junio de 2014.

El autor ganador del concurso será notificado en septiembre y su trabajo será publicado por el Centro Perry. El autor será reconocido durante una ceremonia en las instalaciones del Centro y su nombre será incluido en una placa especial que será exhibida en uno de los salones de Centro. El Centro Perry sufragará los costos del viaje y alojamiento del ganador para asistir a la ceremonia.


Friday, May 2, 2014

Alumni association of Paraguay celebrates 12 years

We recognize and celebrate the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies Alumni Association of Paraguay who celebrate their 12 year anniversary today, May 2, 2014.  Congratulations!

Celebramos con la Asociacion de Egresados Centro de Estudios Hemisféricos William J. Perry por su duodecimo aniversario, hoy el 2 de mayo de 2014.  Felicidades!

Thursday, May 1, 2014

Throwback Thursday

Participants at the Perry Center's regional event in Honduras in May 2013 at the College of National Defense with Professor Guillermo Pacheco.

Participantes del evento regional del Centro Perry en Honduras en el Colegio de Defensa Nacional en Mayo 2013 con el Profesor Guillermo Pacheco.

The William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies does regular regional events across the Western Hemisphere in order  to enhance understanding and relationships critical to effective security and defense policies.  Key topics include countering ideological support for terrorism, harmonizing views on common security challenges, education on defense and security in civil societies, and building the capacity of partners’ national security institutions consistent with the norms of civil-military relations.

The Perry Center’s next event will be in late May in El Salvador. For updates and photos, be sure to check out our blog, facebook or twitter pages.

El Centro de Estudios Hemisféricos de William J. Perry hace eventos regionales en el hemisferio occidental para aumentar conocimiento y fortalecer relaciones que son importantes para eficaces politicas de seguridad y defensa. Temas claves incluyen contraargumentar el apoyo ideológico para el terrorismo, armonizar perspectivas sobre comunes desafíos a la seguridad, educación sobre defensa y seguridad en sociedades civiles y construir la capacidad de la seguridad nacional de nuestras instituciones afiliadas según las normas de las relaciones civil-militares.

El próximo evento del Centro Perry es a finales de Mayo en El Salvador. Para más información y fotos, síguenos en nuestro blog o en nuestras paginas de facebook y twitter.

To see more photos of students and alumni at courses and Perry Center events, visit our Flickr page at
Para ver más fotos de los estudiantes y los alumnos de los cursos y eventos del Centro Perry, haga clic en el siguiente enlace: